Vue中发送ajax请求——axios使用详解

基于 Promise 的 HTTP 请求客户端,可同时在浏览器和 node.js 中使用

功能特性
在浏览器中发送 XMLHttpRequests 请求
在 node.js 中发送 http请求
支持 Promise API
拦截请求和响应
转换请求和响应数据
自动转换 JSON 数据
客户端支持保护安全免受 XSRF 攻击

 

// Make a request for a user with a given ID
axios.get(‘/user?ID=12345’)
.then(function (response) {
console.log(response);
})
.catch(function (response) {
console.log(response);
});
// Optionally the request above could also be done as
axios.get(‘/user’, {params: {ID: 12345}})
.then(function (response) {
console.log(response);
})
.catch(function (response) {
console.log(response);
});

发送一个 POST 请求

axios.post(‘/user’, {firstName: ‘Fred’, lastName: ‘Flintstone’})
.then(function (response) {
console.log(response);
})
.catch(function (response) {
console.log(response);
});

 

发送多个并发请求

function getUserAccount() {
return axios.get(‘/user/12345’);
}

function getUserPermissions() {
return axios.get(‘/user/12345/permissions’);
}

axios.all([getUserAccount(), getUserPermissions()])
.then(axios.spread(function (acct, perms) {
// Both requests are now complete
}));

 

axios API

可以通过给 axios传递对应的参数来定制请求:

axios(config)

// Send a POST request
axios(
{
method: ‘post’,
url: ‘/user/12345’,
data: {
firstName: ‘Fred’,
lastName: ‘Flintstone’
}
});

axios(url[, config])
// Sned a GET request (default method)
axios(‘/user/12345’);

请求方法别名
为方便起见,我们为所有支持的请求方法都提供了别名

axios.get(url[, config])
axios.delete(url[, config])
axios.head(url[, config])
axios.post(url[, data[, config]])
axios.put(url[, data[, config]])
axios.patch(url[, data[, config]])
注意
当使用别名方法时, url、 method 和 data 属性不需要在 config 参数里面指定。

并发
处理并发请求的帮助方法

axios.all(iterable)
axios.spread(callback)
创建一个实例
你可以用自定义配置创建一个新的 axios 实例。

axios.create([config])
var instance = axios.create({
baseURL: ‘https://some-domain.com/api/’,
timeout: 1000,
headers: {‘X-Custom-Header’: ‘foobar’}
});
实例方法
所有可用的实例方法都列在下面了,指定的配置将会和该实例的配置合并。

axios#request(config)
axios#get(url[, config])
axios#delete(url[, config])
axios#head(url[, config])
axios#post(url[, data[, config]])
axios#put(url[, data[, config]])
axios#patch(url[, data[, config]])

 

请求配置
下面是可用的请求配置项,只有 url 是必需的。如果没有指定 method ,默认的请求方法是 GET。

{
// `url` is the server URL that will be used for the request
url:’/user’,
// `method` is the request method to be used when making the request
method: ‘get’, // default
// `baseURL` will be prepended to `url` unless `url` is absolute.
// It can be convenient to set `baseURL` for an instance of axios to pass relative URLs
// to methods of that instance.
baseURL: ‘https://some-domain.com/api/’,
// `transformRequest` allows changes to the request data before it is sent to the server
// This is only applicable for request methods ‘PUT’, ‘POST’, and ‘PATCH’
// The last function in the array must return a string or an ArrayBuffer
transformRequest: [function (data) {
// Do whatever you want to transform the data return data;
}],
// `transformResponse` allows changes to the response data to be made before
// it is passed to then/catch
transformResponse: [function (data) {
// Do whatever you want to transform the data return data;
}],
// `headers` are custom headers to be sent
headers: {‘X-Requested-With’: ‘XMLHttpRequest’},
// `params` are the URL parameters to be sent with the request
params: { ID: 12345 };
// `paramsSerializer` is an optional function in charge of serializing `params`
// (e.g. https://www.npmjs.com/package/qs, http://api.jquery.com/jquery.param/)
paramsSerializer: function(params) {
return Qs.stringify(params, {arrayFormat: ‘brackets’})
},
// `data` is the data to be sent as the request body
// Only applicable for request methods ‘PUT’, ‘POST’, and ‘PATCH’
// When no `transformRequest` is set, must be a string, an ArrayBuffer or a hash
data: { firstName: ‘Fred’ },
// `timeout` specifies the number of milliseconds before the request times out.
// If the request takes longer than `timeout`, the request will be aborted.
timeout: 1000,
// `withCredentials` indicates whether or not cross-site Access-Control requests
// should be made using credentials
withCredentials: false, // default
// `adapter` allows custom handling of requests which makes testing easier.
// Call `resolve` or `reject` and supply a valid response (see [response docs](#response-api)).
adapter: function (resolve, reject, config) { /* … */ },
// `auth` indicates that HTTP Basic auth should be used, and supplies credentials.
// This will set an `Authorization` header, overwriting any existing
// `Authorization` custom headers you have set using `headers`.
auth: { username: ‘janedoe’, password: ‘s00pers3cret’ }
// `responseType` indicates the type of data that the server will respond with
// options are ‘arraybuffer’, ‘blob’, ‘document’, ‘json’, ‘text’
responseType: ‘json’, // default
// `xsrfCookieName` is the name of the cookie to use as a value for xsrf token
xsrfCookieName: ‘XSRF-TOKEN’, // default
// `xsrfHeaderName` is the name of the http header that carries the xsrf token value
xsrfHeaderName: ‘X-XSRF-TOKEN’, // default
// `progress` allows handling of progress events for ‘POST’ and ‘PUT uploads’ as well as ‘GET’ downloads
progress: function(progressEvent) {
// Do whatever you want with the native progress event
}
}

响应的数据结构
响应的数据包括下面的信息:

{
// `data` is the response that was provided by the server
data: {},
// `status` is the HTTP status code from the server response
status: 200,
// `statusText` is the HTTP status message from the server response
statusText: ‘OK’,
// `headers` the headers that the server responded with
headers: {},
// `config` is the config that was provided to `axios` for the request
config: {}
}

当使用 then 或者 catch 时, 你会收到下面的响应:

axios.get(‘/user/12345’).then(function (response) {
console.log(response.data);
console.log(response.status);
console.log(response.statusText);
console.log(response.headers);
console.log(response.config);
});

 

默认配置
你可以为每一个请求指定默认配置。

全局 axios 默认配置
axios.defaults.baseURL = ‘https://api.example.com’;
axios.defaults.headers.common[‘Authorization’] = AUTH_TOKEN;
axios.defaults.headers.post[‘Content-Type’] = ‘application/x-www-form-urlencoded’;
自定义实例默认配置
// Set config defaults when creating the instance
var instance = axios.create({baseURL: ‘https://api.example.com’});
// Alter defaults after instance has been created
instance.defaults.headers.common[‘Authorization’] = AUTH_TOKEN;
配置的优先顺序
Config will be merged with an order of precedence. The order is library defaults found in lib/defaults.js, then defaults property of the instance, and finally config argument for the request. The latter will take precedence over the former. Here’s an example.

// Create an instance using the config defaults provided by the library
// At this point the timeout config value is `0` as is the default for the library
var instance = axios.create();
// Override timeout default for the library
// Now all requests will wait 2.5 seconds before timing out
instance.defaults.timeout = 2500;
// Override timeout for this request as it’s known to take a long time
instance.get(‘/longRequest’, {timeout: 5000});

 

拦截器
你可以在处理 then 或 catch 之前拦截请求和响应

// 添加一个请求拦截器
axios.interceptors.request.use(function (config) {
// Do something before request is sent return config;
}, function (error) {
// Do something with request error return Promise.reject(error);
});
// 添加一个响应拦截器
axios.interceptors.response.use(function (response) {
// Do something with response data return response;
}, function (error) {
// Do something with response error return Promise.reject(error);
});

 

移除一个拦截器:

var myInterceptor = axios.interceptors.request.use(function () {
/*…*/
});
axios.interceptors.request.eject(myInterceptor);
你可以给一个自定义的 axios 实例添加拦截器:

var instance = axios.create();
instance.interceptors.request.use(function () {
/*…*/
});

 

axios.get(‘/user/12345’).catch(function (response) {
if (response instanceof Error) {
// Something happened in setting up the request that triggered an Error
console.log(‘Error’, response.message);
} else {
// The request was made, but the server responded with a status code
// that falls out of the range of 2xx
console.log(response.data);
console.log(response.status);
console.log(response.headers);
console.log(response.config);
}
});

Promises
axios 依赖一个原生的 ES6 Promise 实现,如果你的浏览器环境不支持 ES6 Promises,你需要引入 polyfill

 

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